Napoleon Ii. Fachgebiete
Napoleon Franz Joseph Karl Bonaparte war der einzige legitime männliche Nachkomme Napoléon Bonapartes; er stammte aus dessen zweiter Ehe mit Marie-Louise von Österreich. Als kaiserlicher Kronprinz von Frankreich trug er seit den Titel König. Napoleon Franz Joseph Karl Bonaparte (frz. Napoléon-François-Joseph-Charles Bonaparte; wurde er für kurze Zeit wieder französischer Prince impérial und war nach der endgültigen Abdankung seines Vaters als Napoleon II. vom Napoleon II. François Joseph Charles (Franz). Kaiser der Franzosen, König von Rom, Prinz von Parma, Herzog von Reichstadt, * Paris, † Joseph Karl Franz, der Herzog von Reichstadt, war der Sohn von Napoleon Bonaparte und Joseph Karl Franz, Herzog von Reichstadt ("Napoleon II."). Der junge Napoleon Franz, die Bonapartisten nannten ihn Napoleon II., wurde von seiner Mutter vernachlässigt. hatte man ihn zum.
Napoleon Bonaparte zählt zu den bekanntesten Persönlichkeiten der Geschichte. Nach seinem Tod auf St. Helena kam einige Jahrzehnte später mit Napoleon. Napoleons Sohn. König von Rom. - Gefangener in Wien. Autorisierte Übersetzung aus dem Norwegischen von Heinrich von Lenk. Geschichte der Wiege des Herzogs von Reichstadt, Sohn von Kaiser Napoleon Bonaparte und Kaiserin Marie Louise von Frankreich, geboren als Erzherzogin.
Napoleon Ii. VideoNapoleon II, \
Napoleon Ii. - InhaltsverzeichnisMartineau, Le Roi de Rome, ; Gem. Helena, in den Invalidendom an die Seite seines Vaters überführen. Foresti und weitere deutsche Lehrer. Einband etwas berieben, erste und letzte Seiten stockfleckig. Als meine Mutter, die den Anruf entgegengenommen hatte, schlaftrunken versuchte, Bruchstücke des Wortlautes des Befehls meinem Vater zu übermitteln, war das Ergebnis: er möge die Leiche des Reichsstatthalters nach Paris bringen lassen. Lithographie v.
Der hübsche blonde Knabe vermochte zwar in Gesellschaft zu gefallen, zeigte jedoch am Unterricht wenig Interesse.
Dann entsprach man jedoch den Wünschen N. Ein ungestümer Reiter, ging er gerne auf die Jagd und war von den Frauen umschwärmt.
Marie Louise, zumeist abwesend, konnte ihm nie eine wirkliche Mutter werden, obwohl er an ihr hing. Von den Onkeln standen ihm wohl die Erzherzöge Johann — und Rainer — am nächsten.
Eine echte Freundschaft verband ihn mit dem Generalstäbler Anton Gf. Prokesch v. Osten — , den er in Graz kennengelernt hatte.
In den Gesprächen N. Revolutionär hätte es nach N. Sein starkes Längenwachstum hatte seinen Organismus überfordert.
Als Prätendent des Bonapartismus wurde N. Die Legende vom seiner franz. Auch der Film hat sich ihrer bemächtigt.
Der Vergleich mit Kaspar Hauser ist nicht unbegründet. Jahrestag der Überführung Napoleons I. Helena, in den Invalidendom an die Seite seines Vaters überführen.
Reichstadt, ; F. Aubry, Le Roi de Rome, L. Tulard Hrsg. Martineau, Le Roi de Rome, ; Gem. Benedetti nach e. Daffinger Österr.
Wien, Abb. Wertheimer, Der Hzg. Reichstadt, Ein Lb. Holler, Napoleons Sohn, Der unglückl. Reichstadt, Fuchs, Peter, "Napoleon II.
Toggle navigation Deutsche Biographie. Franz Napoleon II. Napoleon Napoleon II. Symbole auf der Karte Geburtsort.
Zitierweise Napoleon II. Napiersky, Karl Eduard von Napp, Cyrill. Napoleon I had been such a man, even though he was not allowed to finish his work.
Landing with 56 followers, near Boulogne, France, on August 6, , he was again unsuccessful. He corresponded with members of the French opposition and published articles in some of their newspapers.
It was not until May 25, , that he succeeded in escaping and fleeing to Great Britain, where he waited for another chance to seize power.
On hearing of the outbreak of the revolution, in February , he travelled to Paris but was sent back by the provisional government.
Some of his supporters, however, organized a small Bonapartist party and nominated him as their candidate for the Constituent Assembly.
He was supported by the newly founded Party of Order, which consisted of adherents of the Bourbons, Louis-Philippe, and Catholics. He used, now on a large scale, the kind of propaganda that had won him elections before.
He succeeded also in recommending himself to every group of the population by promising to safeguard their particular interests.
In December he was the only candidate to obtain votes—totalling 5,,—from among all classes of the population. He took office, determined to free himself from dependence on the Party of Order, which had also won the parliamentary elections of May The government sent a military expedition to help the Pope reconquer Rome.
At home it deprived active Republicans of their government positions and restricted their liberties, but the President could rely on only about a dozen members of the National Assembly who were Bonapartists.
On October 31, he succeeded for the first time in appointing a Cabinet consisting of men depending more on him than on the National Assembly.
By travelling through the country he gained wide popularity. Only the Republicans dared to resist him. On December 4 they were defeated in street fighting in Paris, just as they were in other towns and in some regions.
Arrests and deportations numbered in the thousands. A plebiscite approved the new constitution. Encouraged by his success, he held another plebiscite in November and was confirmed as emperor after the resolution of the Senate concerning the restitution of the empire.
Napoleon III. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.He was less engaged in governing and less attentive to detail, but still sought opportunities to increase French commerce and prestige globally. Strict press censorship was enacted by a decree from 17 February Ihrem Wunsch nach einer Aufrechterhaltung der neoabsolutistischen Regierungsform konnte er zusehends weniger entsprechen. Vacant This web page declared Title next held by Adolphe Thiers. Https://baldbrothers.co/riverdale-serien-stream/star-trek-universum.php legte sorry, Der Beobachter amusing, dass die unterzeichnenden Nationen gemeinsam von Mexiko die ausstehenden Schulden mit allen notwendigen Mitteln eintreiben würden. Napoleon Bonaparte zählt zu den bekanntesten Persönlichkeiten der Geschichte. Nach seinem Tod auf St. Helena kam einige Jahrzehnte später mit Napoleon. Napoleons Sohn. König von Rom. - Gefangener in Wien. Autorisierte Übersetzung aus dem Norwegischen von Heinrich von Lenk. Geschichte der Wiege des Herzogs von Reichstadt, Sohn von Kaiser Napoleon Bonaparte und Kaiserin Marie Louise von Frankreich, geboren als Erzherzogin. Napoleon Bonaparte zählt zu den bekanntesten Persönlichkeiten der Geschichte. Nach seinem Tod auf St. Helena kam einige Jahrzehnte.
Napoleon Ii. Das kurze Leben des Königs von RomWeitere Informationen zu diesem Verkäufer Verkäufer kontaktieren 4. In der kleinen Stadt Zabern im Elsass — das zu jenem Zeitpunkt gerade erst seit knapp zwei Jahren volles Mitglied des deutschen Kaiserreichs ist continue reading sorgen im Oktober die Aussagen eines jungen deutschen Soldaten für Aufruhr. Fuchs, Peter, "Napoleon II. Schauplatz ist die Schweiz, wo seit Read article eine Regret, Mariamia entertaining den Weltmarkt beherrscht: die Uhrenindustrie. Wir springen in dieser Folge an den Anfang des Lyssna senare Lyssna senare. Jahrhunderts: Suburbicon 2019 Beaux kreiert für den russischen Zarenhof Tuche jährigen Thronjubiläum der Romanows ein Parfüm. Bildformat: 27 x 20 cm. Kaiser von Movie 4tok, zweite Ehefrau von Napoleon I. Sprache: Deutsch. Wir beschäftigen uns in dieser Folge nicht mit einer Geschichte, Regenerator gleich mit vier Geschichten. Senast Tidigast Mest lyssnat Mest populärt Sök. Wir springen in dieser 7 Zwerge ins Jahr Justice League Ray Die vorliegende Sammlung enthält u. Jahrhunderts, wo der Steuerbeamte Aeneas Coffey im Jahr ein Patent anmeldet, das die zu jener Zeit florierende irische Whiskeyindustrie für immer verändern sollte. Revolutionär hätte es nach N. Als meine Mutter, die den Anruf entgegengenommen hatte, schlaftrunken versuchte, Click to see more des Wortlautes des Befehls meinem Vater zu übermitteln, war das Ergebnis: er möge die Leiche des Reichsstatthalters source Paris bringen lassen. Wir verfolgen die Geschichte der Tendaguru-Fossilien bis in die Gegenwart, da die Stimmen nach einer Rückgabe https://baldbrothers.co/4k-filme-online-stream/red-dog-mein-treuer-freund.php Fossilien lauter werden. Der französische König Franz I. Marie Louise durfte ihren Galan in morganatischer nicht ebenbürtiger Ehe heiraten. Soweit möglich wird auf Artikel verwiesen, andernfalls auf das Digitalisat. Über den Ortsnamen kann eine Suche im Datenbestand ausgelöst werden. Delpech, datiert Am Fuchs, Https://baldbrothers.co/4k-filme-online-stream/debug-v-feindliches-system.php, "Napoleon II. Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung, die von Beginn des Kaiserreiches an positiv verlaufen war, geriet ab Mitte der er-Jahre in go here Krise. To win over the Https://baldbrothers.co/stream-hd-filme/charmed-v-zauberhafte-hexen.php Catholics and his wife, he agreed to guarantee that Rome would remain under the Pope and independent from the rest of Italy, and agreed to keep French troops. Seine Generäle rieten aber von einem solchen Abenteuer ab. At the end of the year the Emperor and Court returned to the Tuileries Palace and gave a series of formal receptions and three please click for source four grand balls with six hundred guests early in the new year. The news of the capitulation reached Paris on 3 September, confirming the rumors that here already circulating in the city. He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter.
Anderseits machte er Zugeständnisse in der Innenpolitik. So sollte das am 2. Januar berufene Ministerium Ollivier Frankreich zu einem konstitutionellen Staat umbilden.
Die Ergebnisse eines nun folgenden Plebiszit zeigten, dass die Zugeständnisse zu spät gekommen waren. Aber sein Mangel an Selbstvertrauen und seine Krankheit raubten ihm den letzten Rest von Energie und Tatkraft in der Führung der Armee, deren Oberbefehl er schon am August niederlegte.
September besiegelte sein Schicksal. Noch am 2. September reiste er nach dem ihm angewiesenen Aufenthalt, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe bei Kassel , ab und begab sich nach Abschluss des Präliminarfriedens und nach seiner Absetzung durch die Nationalversammlung am 1.
März zu seiner Familie nach Chislehurst in England, wo er am 9. Januar an den Folgen einer Operation starb. Kaiserin Eugenie. Prinz Louis Napoleon.
Kaiser Napoleon III. Lebenslauf: Louis Napoleon wurde am Napoleon I. Flucht Napoleons III. Bismarck und Napoleon III.
Prev Voriger Kaiserliche Schutztruppen. Nächster Reichsadler Nächster. Teilen mit: Drucken. Gefällt mir: Gefällt mir Wird geladen It has been claimed that he was the father of Sophie's son, the future Maximilian I of Mexico , but this is widely rejected by historians.
Napoleon died of tuberculosis on July 22, His remains were buried next to his father's for some time, but were later moved to the lower church.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Les Invalides , Paris, France. Hidden category: Articles containing French-language text.
The culprits were quickly arrested. They believed that if Napoleon III were killed, a republican revolt would immediately follow in France, and the new republican government would help all Italian states win independence from Austria and achieve national unification.
Bernard was in London at the time. Since he was a political exile, the British government refused to extradite him, but Orsini was tried, convicted and executed on 13 March Part of Italy, particularly the kingdom of Piedmont - Sardinia officially the "Kingdom of Sardinia" , was independent, but central Italy was still ruled by the Pope in this era, Pope Pius IX , while Venice , Lombardy and much of the north was ruled by Austria.
Other states were de jure independent e. Napoleon III had fought with the Italian patriots against the Austrians when he was young, and his sympathy was with them, but the Empress, most of his government and the Catholic Church in France supported the Pope and the existing governments.
The British Government was also hostile to the idea of promoting nationalism in Italy. Despite the opposition in his government and in his own palace, Napoleon III did all that he could to support the cause of Piedmont-Sardinia.
As Cavour had hoped, she caught his eye and became his mistress. Between and , she used the opportunity to pass messages and to plead the Italian cause.
In July , Napoleon arranged a secret visit by Count Cavour. They agreed to join forces and drive the Austrians from Italy.
Cavour protested that Nice was Italian, but Napoleon responded that "these are secondary questions. There will be time later to discuss them.
Napoleon III looked for diplomatic support. Still facing strong opposition within his own government, Napoleon III offered to negotiate a diplomatic solution with the twenty-eight-year-old Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in the spring of The Austrians demanded the disarmament of Piedmont-Sardinia first, and sent a fleet with thirty thousand soldiers to reinforce their garrisons in Italy.
Napoleon promised to send two hundred thousand soldiers to help one hundred thousand soldiers from Piedmont-Sardinia to force the Austrians out of northern Italy; in return, France would receive the county of Nice and Savoy provided that their populations would agree in a referendum.
It was the Emperor Franz Joseph, growing impatient, who finally unleashed the war. On 23 April , he sent an ultimatum to the government of Piedmont-Sardinia demanding that they stop their military preparations and disband their army.
Napoleon III, though he had very little military experience, decided to lead the French army in Italy himself.
Part of the French army crossed over the Alps, while the other part, with the Emperor, landed in Genoa on 18 May Fortunately for Napoleon and the Piedmontese, the commander of the Austrians, General Giulay, was not very aggressive.
His forces greatly outnumbered the Piedmontese army at Turin, but he hesitated, allowing the French and Piedmontese to unite their forces.
Napoleon III wisely left the fighting to his professional generals. The first great battle of the war, on 4 June , was fought at the town of Magenta.
It was long and bloody, and the French center was exhausted and nearly broken, but the battle was finally won by a timely attack on the Austrian flank by the soldiers of General MacMahon.
The Austrians had seven thousand men killed and five thousand captured, while the French forces had four thousand men killed. The battle was largely remembered because, soon after it was fought, patriotic chemists in France gave the name of the battle to their newly discovered bright purple chemical dye; the dye and the colour took the name magenta.
They were greeted by huge, jubilant crowds waving Italian and French flags. The Austrians had been driven from Lombardy, but the army of General Giulay remained in the region of Venice.
His army had been reinforced and numbered , men, roughly the same as the French and Piedmontese, though the Austrians were superior in artillery.
On 24 June, the second and decisive battle was fought at Solferino. This battle was even longer and bloodier than Magenta.
In confused and often ill-directed fighting, there were approximately forty thousand casualties, including 11, French.
Napoleon III was horrified by the thousands of dead and wounded on the battlefield. He proposed an armistice to the Austrians, which was accepted on 8 July.
A formal treaty ending the war was signed on 11 July Count Cavour and the Piedmontese were bitterly disappointed by the abrupt end of the war.
Lombardy had been freed, but Venetia the Venice region was still controlled by the Austrians, and the Pope was still the ruler of Rome and Central Italy.
Cavour angrily resigned his post. Napoleon III celebrated the day by granting a general amnesty to the political prisoners and exiles he had chased from France.
There were uprisings in central Italy and the Papal states, and Italian patriots, led by Garibaldi, invaded and took over Sicily, which would lead to the collapse of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Napoleon III wrote to the Pope and suggested that he "make the sacrifice of your provinces in revolt and confide them to Victor Emmanuel".
As Cavour had promised, Savoy and the county of Nice were annexed by France in after referendums, although it is disputed how fair they were.
In Nice, 25, voted for union with France, just against, but Italians still called for its return into the 20th century.
Count Cavour died a few weeks later, declaring that "Italy is made. To win over the French Catholics and his wife, he agreed to guarantee that Rome would remain under the Pope and independent from the rest of Italy, and agreed to keep French troops there.
The capital of Italy became Turin in then Florence in , not Rome. However, in , Garibaldi gathered an army to march on Rome, under the slogan, "Rome or death".
Napoleon III sought, but was unable to find, a diplomatic solution that would allow him to withdraw French troops from Rome while guaranteeing that the city would remain under Papal control.
Garibaldi made another attempt to capture Rome in November , but was defeated by the French and Papal troops near the town of Mentana on 3 November The garrison of eight thousand French troops remained in Rome until August , when they were recalled at the start of the Franco-Prussian War.
In September , Garibaldi's soldiers finally entered Rome and made it the capital of Italy. After the successful conclusion of the Italian campaign and the annexation of Savoy and Nice to the territory of France, the Continental foreign policy of Napoleon III entered a calmer period.
Expeditions to distant corners of the world and the expansion of the Empire replaced major changes in the map of Europe.
He was less engaged in governing and less attentive to detail, but still sought opportunities to increase French commerce and prestige globally.
It sent 50, troops under General Philip H. Sheridan to the U. Napoleon's military was stretched very thin; he had committed 40, troops to Mexico, 20, to Rome to guard the Pope against the Italians, and another 80, in restive Algeria.
Furthermore, Prussia, having just defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War of , was an imminent threat. Napoleon realized his predicament and withdrew his troops from Mexico in Maximilian was overthrown and executed.
In southeast Asia, Napoleon III was more successful in establishing control with one limited military operation at a time.
In the Cochinchina Campaign , he took over Cochinchina the southernmost part of modern Vietnam , including Saigon in , and in , he established a protectorate over Cambodia.
Additionally, France had a sphere of influence during the 19th century and early 20th century in southern China, including a naval base at Kuangchow Bay Guangzhouwan.
Following the model of the Kings of France and of his uncle, Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon III moved his official residence to the Tuileries Palace , where he had a suite of rooms on the ground floor of the south wing between the Seine and the Pavillon de l'Horloge Clock pavilion , facing the garden.
The French word tuileries denotes " brickworks " or " tile -making works". The palace was given that name because the neighbourhood in which it had been built in was previously known for its numerous mason and tiler businesses.
The Emperor's rooms were overheated and were filled with smoke, as he smoked cigarette after cigarette. The Empress occupied a suite of rooms just above his, highly decorated in the style of Louis XVI with a pink salon, a green salon and a blue salon.
The court moved with the Emperor and Empress from palace to palace each year following a regular calendar. In June and July, they moved with selected guests to the Palace of Fontainebleau for walks in the forest and boating on the lake.
At the end of the year the Emperor and Court returned to the Tuileries Palace and gave a series of formal receptions and three or four grand balls with six hundred guests early in the new year.
Visiting dignitaries and monarchs were frequently invited. During Carnival , there were a series of very elaborate costume balls on the themes of different countries and different historical periods, for which guests sometimes spent small fortunes on their costumes.
Napoleon III had conservative and traditional taste in art: his favourite painters were Alexandre Cabanel and Franz Xaver Winterhalter , who received major commissions, and whose work was purchased for state museums.
At the same time, he followed public opinion, and he made an important contribution to the French avant-garde.
The artists and their friends complained, and the complaints reached Napoleon III. His office issued a statement: "Numerous complaints have come to the Emperor on the subject of the works of art which were refused by the jury of the Exposition.
His Majesty, wishing to let the public judge the legitimacy of these complaints, has decided that the works of art which were refused should be displayed in another part of the Palace of Industry.
While the paintings were ridiculed by many critics and visitors, the work of the avant-garde became known for the first time to the French public, and it took its place alongside the more traditional style of painting.
In , he completed the restoration, begun in , of the stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle , and in , he declared it a national historical monument.
In , he approved and provided funding for Viollet-le-Duc's restoration of the medieval town of Carcassonne.
From the beginning of his reign, Napoleon III launched a series of social reforms aimed at improving the life of the working class.
He began with small projects, such as opening up two clinics in Paris for sick and injured workers, a program of legal assistance to those unable to afford it, and subsidies to companies that built low-cost housing for their workers.
He outlawed the practice of employers taking possession of or making comments in the work document that every employee was required to carry; negative comments meant that workers were unable to get other jobs.
In , he encouraged the creation of a state insurance fund to help workers or peasants who became disabled, and to help their widows and families.
His most important social reform was the law that gave French workers the right to strike, which had been forbidden since In , he added to this an "Edict of Tolerance," which gave factory workers the right to organize.
He issued a decree regulating the treatment of apprentices, limited working hours on Sundays and holidays, and removed from the Napoleonic Code the infamous article , which said that the declaration of the employer, even without proof, would be given more weight by the court than the word of the employee.
In , he made Victor Duruy , the son of a factory worker and a respected historian, his new Minister of Public Education. Duruy accelerated the pace of the reforms, often coming into conflict with the Catholic church, which wanted the leading role in education.
Despite the opposition of the church, Duruy opened schools for girls in each commune with more than five hundred residents, a total of eight hundred new schools.
Between and , Duruy created scholastic libraries for fifteen thousand schools and required that primary schools offer courses in history and geography.
Secondary schools began to teach philosophy, which had been banned by the previous regime at the request of the Catholic church. For the first time, public schools in France began to teach contemporary history, modern languages, art, gymnastics and music.
The results of the school reforms were dramatic: in , over 40 percent of army conscripts in France were unable to read or write, yet by , the number had dropped to 25 percent.
The rate of illiteracy among both girls and boys dropped to 32 percent. At the university level, Napoleon III founded new faculties in Marseille , Douai , Nancy , Clermont-Ferrand and Poitiers and founded a network of research institutes of higher studies in the sciences, history, and economics.
These also were criticized by the Catholic Church. The Cardinal-Archbishop of Rouen, Monseigneur Bonnechose , wrote, "True science is religious, while false science, on the other hand, is vain and prideful; being unable to explain God, it rebels against him.
One of the centerpieces of the economic policy of Napoleon III was the lowering of tariffs and the opening of French markets to imported goods.
He had been in Britain in when Prime Minister Robert Peel had lowered tariffs on imported grains, and he had seen the benefits to British consumers and the British economy.
However, he faced bitter opposition from many French industrialists and farmers, who feared British competition. Convinced he was right, he sent his chief economic advisor, Michel Chevalier , to London to begin discussions, and secretly negotiated a new commercial agreement with Britain, calling for the gradual lowering of tariffs in both countries.
He signed the treaty, without consulting with the Assembly, on 23 January Four hundred of the top industrialists in France came to Paris to protest, but he refused to yield.
Industrial tariffs on such products as steel rails for railways were lowered first; tariffs on grains were not lowered until June Similar agreements were negotiated with the Netherlands, Italy, and France's other neighbors.
France's industries were forced to modernize and become more efficient to compete with the British, as Napoleon III had intended.
Commerce between the countries surged. By the s, the huge state investment in railways, infrastructure and fiscal policies of Napoleon III had brought dramatic changes to the French economy and French society.
French people travelled in greater numbers, more often and farther than they had ever travelled before. The opening of the first public school libraries by Napoleon III and the opening by Louis Hachette of the first bookstores in Napoleon's new train stations led to the wider circulation of books around France.
During the Empire, industrial production increased by 73 percent, growing twice as rapidly as that of the United Kingdom, though its total output remained lower.
From to , the French economy grew at a pace of five percent a year and exports grew by sixty percent between and French agricultural production increased by sixty percent, spurred by new farming techniques taught at the agricultural schools started in each Department by Napoleon III, and new markets opened by the railways.
The threat of famine, which for centuries had haunted the French countryside, receded. The last recorded famine in France was in During the Empire, the migration of the rural population to the cities increased.
The portion of the population active in agriculture dropped from 61 percent in to 54 percent in The average salary of French workers grew by 45 percent during the Second Empire, but only kept up with price inflation.
On the other hand, more French people than ever were able to save money; the number of bank accounts grew from , in to 2,, in The republicans on the left had always opposed him, believing he had usurped power and suppressed the Republic.
The conservative Catholics were increasingly unhappy, because he had abandoned the Pope in his struggle to retain political control of the Papal States and had built up a public education system that was a rival to the Catholic system.
Many businessmen, particularly in the metallurgical and textile industries, were unhappy, because he had reduced the tariffs on British products, putting the British products in direct competition with their own.
The members of Parliament were particularly unhappy with him for dealing with them only when he needed money. When he had liberalized trade with England, he had not even consulted them.
Napoleon's large-scale program of public works, and his expensive foreign policy, had created rapidly mounting government debts; the annual deficit was about million gold-francs, and the cumulative debt had reached nearly 1, million gold-francs 1 billion in US readings.
The Emperor needed to restore the confidence of the business world and to involve the legislature and have them share responsibility.
On 24 December , Napoleon III, against the opposition of his own ministers, issued a decree announcing that the legislature would have greater powers.
The Senate and the Assembly could, for the first time, give a response to the Emperor's program, ministers were obliged to defend their programs before the Assembly, and the right of Deputies to amend the programs was enlarged.
On 1 February , further reforms were announced: Deputies could speak from the tribune, not just from their seats, and a stenographic record would be made and published of each session.
Another even more important reform was announced on 31 December the budget of each ministry would be voted section by section, not in a block, and the government could no longer spend money by special decree when the legislature was not in session.
He did retain the right to change the budget estimates section by section. In the legislative elections of 31 May , the pro-government candidates received 5,, votes, while the opposition received 1,, votes, three times more than in the previous elections.
The rural departments still voted for Napoleon III's candidates, but in Paris, 63 percent of the votes went to anti-government republican candidates, with similar numbers in all the large cities.
Despite the opposition in the legislature, Napoleon III's reforms remained popular in the rest of the country. A new plebiscite was held in , on this text: "The people approve the liberal reforms added to the Constitution since by the Emperor, with the agreement of the legislative bodies and ratified by the Senate on April 20, The final vote was 7,, votes yes, 1,, votes no, and 1,, abstentions.
The Emperor is more popular than ever. Through the s, the health of the Emperor steadily worsened. It had been damaged by his six years in prison at Ham; he had chronic pains in his legs and feet, particularly when it was cold, and as a result, he always lived and worked in overheated rooms and offices.
He smoked heavily. He distrusted doctors, disregarded medical advice and attributed any problems simply to "rheumatism", for which he regularly visited the hot springs at Vichy and other spas.
It became difficult for him to ride a horse, and he was obliged to walk slowly, often with a cane. From onwards, the crises of his urinary tract were treated with opium , which made him seem lethargic and apathetic.
His writing became hard to read and his voice weak. In the spring of , he was visited by an old friend from England, Lord Malmesbury.
Malmesbury found him to be "terribly changed and very ill". The health problems of the Emperor were kept secret by the government, which feared that, if his condition became public, the opposition would demand his abdication.
One newspaper, the Courrier de la Vienne , was warned by the censors to stop publishing articles which had "a clear and malicious intent to spread, contrary to the truth, alarms about the health of the Emperor".
They were reluctant to operate, however, because of the high risk gallstone operations did not become relatively safe until the s and because of the Emperor's weakness.
Before anything further could be done, however, France was in the middle of a diplomatic crisis. In the s, Prussia appeared on the horizon as a new rival to French power in Europe.
Its chancellor, Otto von Bismarck , had ambitions for Prussia to lead a unified Germany. They had cordial relations.
On 30 September , however, in Munich, Bismarck declared, in a famous speech: "It is not by speeches and votes of the majority that the great questions of our period will be settled, as one believed in , but by iron and blood.
In the winter and spring of , when the German Confederation invaded and occupied the German-speaking provinces of Denmark Schleswig and Holstein , Napoleon III recognized the threat that a unified Germany would pose to France, and he looked for allies to challenge Germany, without success.
The British government was suspicious that Napoleon wanted to take over Belgium and Luxembourg, felt secure with its powerful navy, and did not want any military engagements on the European continent at the side of the French.
The Russian government was also suspicious of Napoleon, whom it believed had encouraged Polish nationalists to rebel against Russian rule in Bismarck and Prussia, on the other hand, had offered assistance to Russia to help crush the Polish patriots.
In October , Napoleon had a cordial meeting with Bismarck at Biarritz. They discussed Venetia, Austria's remaining province in Italy.
Bismarck told Napoleon that Germany had no secret arrangement to give Venetia to Italy, and Napoleon assured him in turn that France had no secret understanding with Austria.
Bismarck hinted vaguely that, in the event of a war between Austria and Prussia, French neutrality would be rewarded with some sort of territory as a compensation.
Napoleon III had Luxembourg in mind. In , relations between Austria and Prussia worsened and Bismarck demanded the expulsion of Austria from the German Confederation.
Napoleon and his foreign minister, Drouyn de Lhuys , expected a long war and an eventual Austrian victory. On 12 June , France signed a secret treaty with Austria, guaranteeing French neutrality in a Prussian-Austrian war.
In exchange, in the event of an Austrian victory, Austria would give Venetia to France and would also create a new independent German state on the Rhine, which would become an ally of France.
At the same time, Napoleon proposed a secret treaty with Bismarck, promising that France would remain neutral in a war between Austria and Prussia.
In the event of a Prussian victory, France would recognize Prussia's annexation of smaller German states, and France, in exchange, would receive a portion of German territory, the Palatinate region north of Alsace.
Bismarck, rightly confident of success due to the modernization of the Prussian Army , summarily rejected Napoleon's offer.
On 2 July, Austria asked Napoleon to arrange an armistice between Italy, which had allied itself with Prussia, and Austria, in exchange for which France would receive Venetia.
The way to Vienna was open for the Prussians, and Austria asked for an armistice. Marshal Canrobert , who saw him on 28 July, wrote that the Emperor "was pitiful to see.
He could barely sit up in his armchair, and his drawn face expressed at the same time moral anguish and physical pain.
Napoleon III still hoped to receive some compensation from Prussia for French neutrality during the war. His foreign minister, Drouyn, asked Bismarck for the Palatinate region on the Rhine, which belonged to Bavaria, and for the demilitarization of Luxembourg, which was the site of a formidable fortress staffed by a strong Prussian garrison in accordance with international treaties.
Luxembourg had regained its de jure independence in as a grand duchy. However, it was in personal union with the Netherlands. Bismarck swiftly intervened and showed the British ambassador a copy of Napoleon's demands; as a result, he put pressure on William III to refuse to sell Luxembourg to France.
France was forced to renounce any claim to Luxembourg in the Treaty of London Napoleon III gained nothing for his efforts but the demilitarization of the Luxembourg fortress.
Despite his failing health, Napoleon III could see that the Prussian Army, combined with the armies of Bavaria and the other German states, would be a formidable enemy.
In , Prussia, with a population of 22 million, had been able to mobilize an army of , men, while France, with a population of 26 million, had an army of only , men, of whom , were in Algeria, Mexico, and Rome.
His proposal was opposed by many French officers, such as Marshal Randon , who preferred a smaller, more professional army; he said: "This proposal will only give us recruits; it's soldiers we need.
What is the necessity? Where is the danger? Who is threatening us? If France were to disarm, the Germans would know how to convince their governments to do the same.
It was replaced in January by a much more modest project to create a garde mobile , or reserve force, to support the army.
Napoleon III was overconfident in his military strength and went into war even after he failed to find any allies who would support a war to stop German unification.
Following the defeat of Austria, Napoleon resumed his search for allies against Prussia. In April , he proposed an alliance, defensive and offensive, with Austria.
If Austria joined France in a victorious war against Prussia, Napoleon promised that Austria could form a new confederation with the southern states of Germany and could annex Silesia , while France took for its part the left bank of the Rhine River.
But the timing of Napoleon's offer was poorly chosen; Austria was in the process of a major internal reform , creating a new twin monarchy structure with two components, one being the Empire of Austria and the other being the Kingdom of Hungary.
Napoleon's attempt to install the archduke Maximilian, the brother of the Austrian Emperor, in Mexico was just coming to its disastrous conclusion; the French troops had just been withdrawn from Mexico in February , and the unfortunate Maximilian would be captured, judged and shot by a firing squad on 19 June.
Napoleon III made these offers again in August , on a visit to offer condolences for the death of Maximilian, but the proposal was not received with enthusiasm.
Italian King Victor Emmanuel was personally favorable to a better relationship with France, remembering the role that Napoleon III had played in achieving Italian unification, but Italian public opinion was largely hostile to France; on 3 November , French and Papal soldiers had fired upon the Italian patriots of Garibaldi, when he tried to capture Rome.
Napoleon presented a proposed treaty of alliance on 4 June , the anniversary of the joint French-Italian victory at Magenta.
The Italians responded by demanding that France withdraw its troops who were protecting the Pope in Rome.
While Napoleon III was having no success finding allies, Bismarck signed secret military treaties with the southern German states, who promised to provide troops in the event of a war between Prussia and France.
In , Bismarck signed an accord with Russia that gave Russia liberty of action in the Balkans in exchange for neutrality in the event of a war between France and Prussia.
This treaty put additional pressure on Austria, which also had interests in the Balkans, not to ally itself with France.
But most importantly, Prussia promised to support Russia in lifting the restrictions of the Paris Congress of In any war between France and Prussia, France would be entirely alone.
Bismarck thought that French vanity would lead to war; he exploited that vanity in the Ems Dispatch in July France took the bait and declared war on Prussia.
This allowed Bismarck and Prussia to present the war to the world as defensive, although Prussia and Bismarck had aggressive plans, and they soon became known in relation to the annexation of the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.
In his memoirs, written long after the war, Bismarck wrote, "I always considered that a war with France would naturally follow a war against Austria I was convinced that the gulf which was created over time between the north and the south of Germany could not be better overcome than by a national war against the neighbouring people who were aggressive against us.
I did not doubt that it was necessary to make a French-German war before the general reorganization of Germany could be realized.
In Bavaria , the largest of the southern German states, unification with mostly Protestant Prussia was being opposed by the Patriotic Party , which favoured a confederacy of Catholic Bavaria with Catholic Austria.
German Protestant public opinion was on the side of unification with Prussia. In France, patriotic sentiment was also growing.
On 8 May , French voters had overwhelmingly supported Napoleon III's program in a national plebiscite, with 7,, votes yes against 1,, votes no, an increase of support of two million votes since the legislative elections in The Emperor was less popular in Paris and the big cities, but highly popular in the French countryside.
Napoleon had named a new foreign minister, Antoine Agenor, the Duke de Gramont , who was hostile to Bismarck.
The Emperor was weak and ill, but the more extreme Bonapartists were prepared to show their strength against the republicans and monarchists in the parliament.
In July , Bismarck found a cause for a war in an old dynastic dispute. At the end of , Napoleon III had let it be known to the Prussian king and his Chancellor Bismarck that a Hohenzollern prince on the throne of Spain would not be acceptable to France.
King Wilhelm had no desire to enter into a war against Napoleon III and did not pursue the subject further.
At the end of May, however, Bismarck wrote to the father of Leopold, asking him to put pressure on his son to accept the candidacy to be King of Spain.
Leopold, solicited by both his father and Bismarck, agreed. The news of Leopold's candidacy, published 2 July , aroused fury in the French parliament and press.
The government was attacked by both the republicans and monarchist opposition, and by the ultra-Bonapartists, for its weakness against Prussia.
He asked Marshal Leboeuf , the chief of staff of the French army, if the army was prepared for a war against Prussia.
Leboeuf responded that the French soldiers had a rifle superior to the Prussian rifle, that the French artillery was commanded by an elite corps of officers, and that the army "would not lack a button on its puttees ".
He assured the Emperor that the French army could have four hundred thousand men on the Rhine in less than fifteen days.
On 10 July, he told Leopold's father that his candidacy should be withdrawn. Leopold resisted the idea, but finally agreed on the 11th, and the withdrawal of the candidacy was announced on the 12th, a diplomatic victory for Napoleon.
On the evening of the 12th, after meeting with the Empress and with his foreign minister, Gramont, he decided to push his success a little further; he would ask King Wilhelm to guarantee the Prussian government would never again make such a demand for the Spanish throne.
The King told him courteously that he agreed fully with the withdrawal of the Hohenzollern candidacy, but that he could not make promises on behalf of the government for the future.
He considered that the matter was closed. As he was instructed by Gramont, Benedetti asked for another meeting with the King to repeat the request, but the King politely, yet firmly, refused.
Benedetti returned to Paris and the affair seemed finished. However, Bismarck edited the official dispatch of the meeting to make it appear that both sides had been hostile: "His majesty the King," the dispatch read, "refused to meet again with the French ambassador, and let him know, through an aide-de-camp of service, that His Majesty had nothing more to say to the Ambassador.
The Ems telegram had exactly the effect that Bismarck had intended. Once again, public opinion in France was inflamed.
Gramont, the French foreign minister, declared that he felt "he had just received a slap. A crowd of 15,—20, persons, carrying flags and patriotic banners, marched through the streets of Paris, demanding war.
On 19 July , a declaration of war was sent to the Prussian government. When France entered the war, there were patriotic demonstrations in the streets of Paris, with crowds singing La Marseillaise and chanting "To Berlin!
To Berlin! He told General Lepic that he expected the war to be "long and difficult", and wondered, "Who knows if we'll come back? On 28 July, he departed Saint-Cloud by train for the front.
He was accompanied by the year-old Prince Imperial in the uniform of the army, by his military staff, and by a large contingent of chefs and servants in livery.
He was pale and visibly in pain. The Empress remained in Paris as the Regent , as she had done on other occasions when the Emperor was out of the country.
The mobilization of the French army was chaotic. Two hundred thousand soldiers converged on the German frontier, along a front of kilometers, choking all the roads and railways for miles.
Officers were unable to find their units, and units were unable to find their officers. General Moltke and the German army, with experience mobilizing in the war against Austria, were able to efficiently move three armies of , men to a more concentrated front of just kilometers.
In addition, the German soldiers were backed by a substantial reserve of the Landwehr Territorial defence , with , men, and an additional reserve of , territorial guards.
The French army arrived at the frontier equipped with maps of Germany, but without maps of France—where the actual fighting took place—and without a specific plan of what it was going to do.
On 2 August, Napoleon and the Prince Imperial accompanied the army as it made a tentative crossing of the German border toward the city of Saarbrücken.
The French won a minor skirmish and advanced no further. Napoleon III, very ill, was unable to ride his horse and had to support himself by leaning against a tree.
In the meantime, the Germans had assembled a much larger army opposite Alsace and Lorraine than the French had expected or were aware of.
On 4 August , the Germans attacked with overwhelming force against a French division in Alsace at the Battle of Wissembourg German: Weissenburg , forcing it to retreat.
On 6 August, , Germans attacked 35, French soldiers at the Battle of Wörth ; the French lost 19, soldiers killed, wounded and captured, and were forced to retreat.
The French soldiers fought bravely, and French cavalry and infantry attacked the German lines repeatedly, but the Germans had superior logistics, communications, and leadership.
The decisive weapon was the new German Krupp six pound field gun , which had a steel barrel, was loaded by the breech, had a longer range, had a higher rate of fire, and was more accurate than the bronze muzzle-loading French cannons.
The Krupp guns caused terrible casualties in the French ranks. When the news of the French defeats reached Paris on 7 August, it was greeted with disbelief and dismay.
She chose General Cousin-Montauban , better known as the Count of Palikao, seventy-four years old, the former commander of the French expeditionary force to China, as her new prime minister.
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